Chapter 6 GRA-101 Jody Pudsey
Layout Guide to Graphic Print Production
Documents must be:
easy to output
easy to create plates from
suitable for printing
6.1 Layout Work
layout producer has broad task
recv original text
mounts into doc
make original print
6.1.1 Choosing Layout Software
manage design, typography, images, color editing, page description language
PostScript – page description language used in graphic print production, supports four-color and spot color.
WP, Word, PP, Exc, do not support four color and spot color. Poor typographical proofing, no warnings for missing fonts
(replaces font), file formats and images unpredictable layouts – Therefore they are not suitable for print production.
6.1.2 Planning the Layout
1st Step: page format(size) must be chosen
2nd Step: number of pages and type of paper must be chosen
Binding affects layout – how images can be placed across 2 page spread
Page Plan – Tool- Sketches to plan page layout
3rd Step: Which and how many print colors to be used – single, four, spot colors??
4rd Step: by production house – imposition to know how pages need to be placed on sheet
Imposition – shows where center and dbl-pg spreads occur.
6.1.3 Making Template & Setting the Basic Structure
Templates create a good way to create structure in layout
6.1.4 Document and Master Pages
Default settings as a Template
6.1.5 Library and Pull-outs
Library – images and text frames with or w/o content stored and reused by dragging onto pages.
6.1.6 Typographical Templates, Objects Templates, and Color Schemes
settings for Paragraphs, separate characters can be saved as styles
color swatches – color combinations saved
AI has object templates – settings for frame stored and reused
6.1.7 Default Settings
AI default settings are created as Work Spaces
6.2 Text Manuscript
text needs most editing and proofing – before mounting in layout doc
produce in word processing software, then typography and placement in layout program
6.2.1 Appropriate Software for Word Processing
MSWord – most common
6.2.2 Appropriate File Formats for Text
Save in Doc format and open file format (RTF or ASCII) – independent of platforms
6.2.3 Program-Specific Text files
MS Word – contain all the unctions and refinements of original program
con- some not transferrable
6.2.4 ASCII format
American Standard Code for Information and Interchange(ASCII)
standard digital info, esp. text
saves ea. text character w/7 bits, can handle 128 different characters in one text
may not be big enough
today- need 8 bits for 256 different characters
often called “Plain Text”
6.2.5 RTF Format
Rich Text Format(RTF) – common open format, contains codes for typefaces and simpler typography
Facilitate moving text files between programs while retaining typographical info., can store names of paragraphs and character format
6.3 Mounting Text
Text Manuscripts – normally imported into layout programs, placed into typeface, edited to fit in existing space.
Both Images and Text that are imported are linked and if original docs are changed, you need to update links in Layout Program.
6.3.1 Using Structured Manuscript
be consistent in use of paragraph and character formatting
to set text in type – give structure for different elements, requires that paragraph formats contain settings
6.3.2 Using Tagged Manuscript Text
support handling marked text – called tagged text
based on ea part of text beige provided with code, tags formats to be utilized
saved in ASCII
similar to html
6.3.3 Using Manuscripts in XML format
eXtensible Markup Language – code for logically tagging a texts different existing parts according to content – headings, intro, image captions, body
doesn not contain info about typographical design
can be imported to and from AI
good for catalogs and various media used text
6.3.4 Linking te Layout to Text Database
large amounts of text in a DB – directly linked
suitable for catalogs
6.3.5 Working with Text Editing Parallel with Layout
traditional layout workflow – text produced – text mounted – given typeface – produced as pdf or printout for review
Now text editing and layout – done simultaneously
AI can have editorial system to track multiple manuscripts
6.4 Typefaces, Font, and Typography
Most important component of GD and layout
typeface that creates typography is stored in FONTS
FONTS- digital typeface files
fonts are embedded in Postscript and ODF file
6.4.1 Typeface and Font
Typeface – term for design of a set of characters: number of type styles- bold, narrow, light
Font – name for set of lead type with typeface shapes; name for digital fonts files that have replaced lead type: refers to character set in one or several styles stored in the digital form.
Font files – OpenType, TrueType, PostScript Type 1
Open = contains 65,000 characters
6.4.2 Choosing a Typeface
look at samples
MAC OS – use Font Book to install fonts
6.4.3 Working with Typography Templates
save you time
increase quality by guaranteeing various parts of the document will be set exactly the same way.
allows rapids changes
can be imported from one doc to another
can sync font
quark – uses term typography template
InDesign – uses terms paragraph styles and character styles
6.4.4 How to Install Fonts
Mac – if font installed in general library can be used by all users
if font installed in users library can only be used by user
if installed in program can only be used in that program
6.4.5 Activating Fonts without Installing them
Font Book – create groups, temporary use of font
6.4.6 Finding the Right Characters in the Font
to reach hidden characters use must use character combinations
to help find hidden characters – use adobe indesign “Glyphs”
GLYPHS- give good overview of all the characters that make up a font
Type–> Insert Special Characters
Edit–> Special Character
6.4.7 Keeping Fonts Organized
Place in Font Book custom folders to categorize
License for use?
6.4.8 Creating, Modifying, and Converting Fonts
modify and create new fonts – FontLab Studio and Fontographer or Illustrator
add tracking, kerning info, then save in free-choice format
6.5 Font File Formats and Functions
3 regular font file formats:
PostScript Type 1
developed jointly by adobe and microsoft
pros: same font file used for both operating systems
use standard unicode
made of one file
can contain several versions of the same font
can have several diff ligatures
6.5.2 PostScript Type 1
basis for three current versions of Postscript
launched in mid 80′s
made up of two files
screen font (info of wit and kerning, low versions of pixel based version – screen display and outline font when the font is going to be printed, both mac os and windows(file is PFB – Printer Font Binary=outline)
contains character setup saved as a string,
String – small pixel-based img b/w, number of sizes 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 24 points
Printer font (outline font) depicts characters shape(bezier curves), PFM – Printer Font Metrics
each character represented 8 bits
font can contain max 256 different characters
developed by Apple – 1991
supported by mac and window
different file formats
Completely based on curves and B-spline curves
has outline font & separate pixel-based screen font
causes problems when ripping
6.5.4 Kerning Tablets
space between two character sets AV can be adjusted
InDesign – metric kerning – change values or optic kerning(- diminishes need for manual adjustments
6.5.5 Hinting for Better Printouts
when print characters in small sizes on printer in low res, think line in character may be 1.5 dpi
hint = suggestion to RIP to make good choice
all fonts are hinted
6.6 Pitfalls with Fonts
6.6.1 Missing Fonts
layout programs contain links used in the doc
save doc as PDF
6.6.2 Different Typefaces with the Same Name
if you replace a missing font with a same named font, may get discrepancies if not exact font
6.6.3 Font Identification Numbers
unique font number id
numbers may overlap
=typeface collision/number id conflicts
6.6.4 Mac / Windows Fonts
truetype and postscript type 1 are for both
can cause problems when crossing platforms
to avoid conflicts of fonts use= OpenType fonts
6.6.5. TrueType Fonts
older RIPs based on postscript type 2 have problems with printing
avoid using them in graphic production
modern TrueTypes pose no problem
6.6.6 Bold or Italic in the Layout Program
6.7 Images in Layout
Two main kinds of file:
Object graphics- diagrams, news graphics, logos, saved as EPS or PDF
Pixel based images – photographic images, hand-drawn images, camera images, edited in PS, saved as TIFF, EPS, or PDF
6.7.1 Images in CMYK or RGB?
scanned img, camera img,- RGB
Print – CMYK
Print adjustment stage- images converted to be optimized for halftone dots and for paper and printing process.
can mount RGB or CMYK into Layout
Mounting RGB – images aren’t adjusted to particular printing process, can be adjusted with out affecting layout.
- can use same layout for several diff types of printing
can have both RGB and CMYK images mounted in same layout
Check to see image info – COLOR IMAGE in INFORMATION window
6.7.2 Optimal Image Size
resolution is changed depending upon size in which you choose to have img mounted in
use image manuscript to plan
make image resolution DOUBLE that of the screen frequency in print
300dpi – enough for all type of printing and screen frequencies
6.8. Mounting Images
when mounted a low res copy is created in doc.
has direct link to high res img
when printing, program replaces low res with high res
MUST keep images name and location the same after mounting
Layout programs do not edit images
6.8.1 Embedding Images in the Layout Document
InDesign and Pagemaker – embeds mounted images directly in layout file
embedding can simplify handling
Can not edit images once mounted directly
6.8.2 Reducing and Enlarging the Image in the Layout
use optimal resolution, then decrease size = res will be higher then ness.
does not affect quality
enlarge img = res reduced, risk suffering quality
can enlarge an optimally sized img 115-120 %% before seeing quality reduction
6.8.3 Viewing the Images in Low or High Resolution
when trying to place or crop img mounted, change from low res view to high res view
hig res view = true high resolution or object based resolution
6.8.4 Print outs in High or Low Resolution
you can choose
low res- faster printout
can print with no images – grey boxes
6.9 Color in Layout
spot colors or four color or both
SPOT color =special ready made blend of printing ink in a certain color that is printed with its own printing plate
=exist in large number of different colors
=most common system – PANTONE (PANTONE Matching System)
FOUR-COLOR = cyan, magenta, yellow, black inks- combining four inks in diff proportions, can create thousands of diff colors,
= printed beside each other and on top
SPOT COLOR or FOUR COLOR
When do you use spot colors?
-When you only want to use one or two colors in your printed product
-When you want to use colored test without risk of misregistration.
-When it is important for a certain color to be exactly right, for example, in logotypes or tinted areas.
-When you want to use colors such as gold or silver fluorescent colors or colors that area more saturated that four color combinations can manage.
-When you want to have a certain color printed without rasters.
-When the total color coverage is limited in print.
When do you use four colors?
-When you are going to print four color images.
-When you are going to use more than two colors.
6.9.1 Choosing Colors from Printed Color Guides
choose color from color guides
Color Guides show how colors look when printed
must look at them in correct light and with correct paper
Four color guides made in 10% increments for each printed color
Spot color guides made in increments of respective spot colors and four color combination that most resembles it.
6.9.2 Four Color together with Spot Colors
must ask printing press how many inks they can print with
increases price if need to be run twice, if only provide four color and you want to add a spot to it.
6.9.3 Converting Spot Colors to Four Color Values
programs do it automatically but you can choose them correctly by matching the spot color to the exact four color % on color guides, not screen
Converting a SPOT color to FOUR color
-Use a color guide that shows the Pantone color against the SMYK combination that is closest to it.
-Use a Pantone color guide and compare the actual color against the color squares in a four color
guide. Find the CMYK combination that is most like the spot color.
-Check off SEPERATION in the color definition for spot color in QuarkXpress or choose CMYK as COLOR TYPE
for SPOT COLOR in InDesign.
6.9.4 Converting Four Color Values to Pantone Colors
take printed pantone guide, compare it with a printed sample of four color with correct lighting.
6.9.5 Saving the Color Combination as a Color Swatch
6.9.6 Varnish is Defined as an Ink in the Layout
varnish – special effect
partial varnish – special effect of part of object
defines special color, will be printed over objects and colors, placed in its own layer
6.9.7 Handling colors Using ICC in the Layout
3 things needed to have screen match colors you want printed
1-screen display must be correct
2-have info from print house of ability to reproduce those colors
3-layout program must be told to simulate printing
printer ICC profile
only effects whats viewed on screen not the content
6.10 Pitfalls in Managing Colors
6.10.1 Removing Unused Spot Colors
Printed colors each have a printing plate in the press.
some colors can be left over from sketches
unused colors must be removed pro to sending to printer
6.10.2 Spot Colors that are not Color-Separated
Typical to sketch layout with spot color
make sure spot colors set for separation to four color
6.10.3 Naming Spot Colors Alike
Illustrations- spot colors must have same name in illustrations as in layout.
6.10.4 Being Careful with Ink Amounts
making 4 color combos, not to make colors using too much ink
max ink coverage is 100 + 100 + 100 + 100 = 400 percent color.
cannot print more than 220 – 340 percent ink – depending upon paper and print process
fine sheet fed print – 340 percent ink coverage
newspaper print – 240 percent coverage
6.11 Pitfalls in the Layout Work
- Images or Tints that reach all the way to the paper edges
have objects stretch slightly outside the page format
use safety margin of at least 1/8 inch recommended.
Covers- single large Doc, front and back
In binder cover – 3/8 inch bleed
- two page spread of image or object, on different sheets of different parts of the same sheet, not printed directly next to each other.
= Double Page Spreads
avoid delicate objects(small text, thin rules) on two page spreads
variations in colors happen between printed sheets
Avoid – placing objects diagonally across two page spreads
avoid – thin lines that bleed across two pages apreads
6.11.3 Color Variations
6.11.4 Rich Black and OverPrints
place tint area containing only 100 percent black, beside dark area of photograph, tint will look pale.
Process colors are always translucent = more inks you print on top of each other the darker the result.
6.11.5 Text and Tint Areas
printing colors on top of each other, misrepresentation occurs!
small objects more noticeable
adding line patterns, text – should have special spot color instead of four color combo
avoid white text over background image, if you must use sans serif
6.11.6 Transparency and Drop Shadow
see through shadows behind those objects
problems with ripping
create a PDF/X file- replaced with high res, pixel based images
6.11.7 Moving Documents between Mac OS and Windows
okay to move – Indesign, Illustrator, Phototshop, Acrobat, word, excel
relatively problem free- Quark, PP, as long as same version
no problems with image files
Negatives- fonts that do not match per platforms, unwanted line and page breaks
6.11.8 Moving Documents Between Different Programs
Open older file in newer version program
InDesign only can convert QuarkXpress docs from version 4 and earlier
better to build document from ground up in new program
Proofing- reviewing Text, typography, layout
use PDFs for proofs
6.12.1 Proofreading on Paper
proof reading symbols(IOS 5776)
helpful to use colroed pencil
What should be Checked in the Text?
-Hyphens and spaces between letters
-Page and image references
-Consistency of typography and symbols
6.12.2 Proofreading with PDF and Acrobat
indication and handling of correction of text and layout:
No tools on Adobe Reader
PDF can be placed on server and emailed – all comments are sent, then corrections are sent back
check fonts, links, overprints, knockouts, colors, correct resolutions, color modes, bleeds
6.13.1 Printouts for Proofing
make prints on laser printer
color prints allow color correctness
Laser printer poor judgement of typography, then on a black and white print.
Print on larger to check bleed
6.13.2 Checking Printing Colors
InDesign – function –> File –> PreFlight
and –>View –>OverPrint
Acrobat Pro – –>Advanced –> OutPut Preview –> Separation
6.13.3. PreFlight of the Layout Document
refers to check pilot performs before plane takeoff
to review digital documents before production
-images being correctly linked
-fonts being set
-colors being correct
-check knockouts and overprinting occurs where you want by viewing separations
6.14 Sending Documents to Print
send high res PDF that has layout, images, fonts embedded
less risk of error
send in Open Document = layout doc with images and fonts
printer opens layout in same layout program it was created in
allows for last minutes changes
MOST COMMON COURCE of ERROR in PRINTED MATERIALS!!!!===Making a final print from an uncorrected document.*********
6.14.1 Include a Dummy
if sending Open Doc, send a pdf file or printout of layout
can check to see if its the correct doc that was sent
6.14.2 Collecting Document, Images and Fonts
if sending Open Doc
place all related documents/objects in one folder and use
does a preflight and reports in on document
6.14.3 Delivering Files
sending over the Internet
sending it DVD/CD
label files and structure
6.15 Structuring and Archiving
6.15.1 Working in Conjunction with a Server
foundation for common structured way – save it in server
6.15.2 Storing File in a Structured Way
structure is built is determined by how you work
Registration – images or text lining up across a two page spread
Unicode- a modern standard for storing and providing characters and is used in different file formats. handles 1.1 mill characters, unto 17 layers with 65536 characters, able to handle all written languages of the world
known 100000 characters from alphabets
supported by all modern operating systems
base for OpenType fonts
uses 16 bits to save each character, can enable 65,000 characters per font file
XML- eXtensible Markup Language – is a code language for logically tagging a text’s different existing parts according to the content.
Typeface – Appearance of the characters. A set of typefaces is characterized by the design given by the original.
Typestyle – Variation of the typeface (bold, italic) -The weight or posture of a font, distinguished from a fonts typeface design and type size.
Font File – A data file containing a typestyle (helvetica bold)
Font – Collection of type in a particular typeface stored in a file
- that contains the same typeface( normal, bold, italic of the typeface helvetica)
Serif – Structural details on the ends of letter found in Roman fonts such as Janson and Times.
Typeface that includes hard strokes- fine lines, that risk disappearing if misregistration occurs
Sans Serif – Typeface family without Serifs, eg Helvetica
Ligatures -Specially created character composed of two separate characters that are made into one. eg. ae and fi
Bleed-Images or objects that are supposed to run all the way to the edge of the paper are printed with bleeds – so they run over the edge of the page
format by 5mm.
-images of objects placed across a two page spread are called crossover bleeds.
Tracking – Adjustment of character spacing, expanding, and condensing in a text piece or line.
Hairline – The thinnest strokes in Roman Letters.
Anti-Aliasing -Technique used to create soft edges on a pixel-based screen using grey levels.
- allows fonts to be better reproduced on the screen. Contours lines, slower view on screen.
Clear Type – windows, to even out text on the screen, expanded anti-aliasing, uses colored pixels to light individually for smoother character form.
CoolType – Adobe programs, font manager, to use fonts in windows format.
x-Height – Typographic measurement of the height of the lowercase letters with no ascenders or descenders
Kerning – Narrowing or widening the space between two letters.
-Distance between each combination os two characters in a text = kerning values
Optical Kerning – based on the shape of the letters rather then a predefined table
Over Print – text is printed on a tint areas and the colors of the two objects mix. The opposite of knockout, where the colors of the objects are not missed.
- black text tends to overprint.
Em Space –
Baseline – the Imaginary line on which all capital letters in a row rest.
Knockout – when a graphic is placed over another the colors of the text and the background are in t intended to mix, space is knocked out for the text.
A hole the same shape as the text is knocked out in the tint area and the text is printed on a unpainted surface.
- to make a hole in an object based images so that objects behind it are visible.
Laser printer – uses laser and xerographic methods, uses toner ink powder, which is bonded to the paper using heat.
Registration – situation where all printing inks are correctly aligned with each other.
-when sheets in the sheet transport of a printing press are adjusted in order to endure that they run throughout the press in a synced manner
RIP – raster image processor. calculates and rasterizes pages before they are output
- rip time = time it takes to RIP to interpret the PostScript code for a page and create the bitmap with exposure points.